Правила дорожного движения для детей

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Правила дорожного движения для детей

«Это же дорога! По ней мчатся машины! А ты словно не видишь!» - ругает мама малыша, который бесстрашно погнался за мячом. Стоп, претензии отчасти необоснованны: карапузы и впрямь долго не понимают, какие опасности несут яркие авто.



Дело связано с восприятием: в 3-4 года дети могут отличить стоящую машину от движущейся, но уверены, что те могут останавливаться тотчас. В 5 лет они еще не осознают понятие скорости, им кажется, что коляска с младенцем и машина движутся одинаково. Приплюсуйте сюда ограниченную панораму обозрения и непонимание ситуации, опасности им кажутся несущественными.


Педагоги уверяют, что наказание, ругань и прочие «силовые методы» неэффективны. Правила дорожного движения для детей нужно объяснять доброжелательно, обстоятельно и, как всегда, на личном примере. Обозначим главные вехи.


Объясняйте правила движения по светофору. Переходите дорогу только на зеленый, приучите к этому малыша.
Задружите с «зеброй». Объясните ребенку, что это – главная дорога пешехода.


Переходя дорогу, возьмите ребенка за руку, предупредите, что сейчас нужно сосредоточиться. Прекратите разговоры, акцентируйте внимание на процессе.


Расскажите, как выходить из транспорта и как обходить их.


Научите ребенка предварительно оценивать ситуацию, прежде чем переходить дорогу – смотреть по сторонам и слушать, не доносится ли подозрительный шум, например, лихач-мотоциклист.


Будучи за рулем с ребенком в машине, помните, что вы являете пример типичного поведения на дорогах. Лихачество, грубость по отношению к остальным, дерзкая манера вождения – это всё может привести к печальным последствиям, если ребенок воспримет за норму.


Став свидетелем ДТП (избегайте страшных зрелищ с жертвами), подробно разберите ситуацию с ребенком. Технические тонкости вроде «тормозной путь» и «включить поворотник» он вряд ли усвоит, а вот базовые ошибки «превысил скороть» и «не оценил ситуацию» должен понять.
Будьте терпеливы. Вы можете сто раз сказать «нельзя», но воспримется единственный – когда объясните, почему.



Александра ОРЛОВА
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